The generic term heavy fuel oil (HFO) describes fuels used to generate motion and/or fuels to generate heat that have a particularly high viscosity and density. In the MARPOL Marine Convention of 1973, heavy fuel oil is defined either by a density of greater than 900 kg/m³ at 15°C or a kinematic viscosity of more than 180 mm²/s at 50°C. Heavy fuel oils have large percentages of heavy molecules such as long-chain hydrocarbons and aromatics with long-branched side chains. They are black in color.
E&P Capital is a worldwide supplier of various Marine Fuels. More information on our bunkers fuels: High Sulphur Fuel Oil, Low Sulphur Fuels Oil and LNG Fuel can be found on this page. The Global Marine Fuels Network page shows where to bunker Shell Marine Fuels. E&P Capital has decades of experience in the marine fuel market, with a supply network that covers many of the key bunkering locations in the world.
E&P Capital is one of the world’s largest independent traders of oil and petroleum products – one of the few with a global presence and comprehensive product coverage handling over 4 million barrels per day. We have extensive logistical and storage capability around the world. As a global trading house we have a detailed overview of macro and micro trends. As physical traders, we gain first-hand experience of economic fundamentals as they play out on the ground.
The gasoline team manages one of the world’s largest seaborne gasoline books. We have an active market presence in components, and extensive, strategically located tankage. Our key strengths in this volatile market include a large storage footprint around the world, a close trading relationship with downstream investment Puma Energy and our carefully managed global distribution system.
Urea (carbamide), readily produced from ammonia and carbon dioxide, is a very important chemical in the agricultural and the polymer industries. Urea is the world's most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer and indeed more urea is manufactured by mass than any other organic chemical. Containing 46% N, it is the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer, and is readily available as free-flowing prills (granules). It is the cheapest form of nitrogen fertilizer to transport and it is also the least likely to 'cake'. It is therefore favoured in developing countries.
Our middle distillates trading operation covers jet fuel, diesel and gas oil. Our teams lease storage globally and use tankage to blend products to local specifications and premium-priced fuels. We trade the full range of distillates, from low to high sulphur.We spot-charter and time-charter a wide range of tonnage through our Shipping and Chartering desk. In order to achieve greater physical arbitrage, we charter large tankers. Our teams lease floating storage vessels to provide prompt supply for customers with limited storage.
Raffinate concentrates 99.5% of the activity – fission products and minor actinides – into a small volume. This material is not reusable and must therefore be transformed into a solid waste. In countries using the PUREX process at industrial scale (France, United Kingdom and Japan), vitrification is the selected method. The de-nitrated concentrates are calcined after which borosilicate glass frit is added. The radionuclides are chemically incorporated into the molten glass, which is then poured into special stainless steel containers – canisters.
The purpose of the reformer is to upgrade heavy naphtha into a high-value gasoline blend stock by raising its octane. The primary product of the reformer is reformate. However, it also generates large amounts of hydrogen that can be used in the hydrotreaters and hydrocrackers. Reformers are sometimes called hydroskimmers because of the hydrogen they produce (skim off).The reformer is a critical unit for making high-quality gasoline and avoiding production of low-octane heavy naphtha. Also, as sulfur specifications have tightened, forcing greater use of hydrotreating, the value of the hydrogen produced by the reformer has increased.